OutlineIntroductionHealth is a critical aspect of human life. Essentially health describes an individuals well-being. In this case health is affected by both internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the West Nile Virus (WNV) as one of the external factors affecting health. This virus was first detected in the West Nile district Uganda in the late 1930s. At first the virus was detected in birds. However the WNV has been noted to affect human beings (WHO 2011; Murray Ruktanonchai Hesalroad Fonken & Nolan 2013). There is a need to enhance the understanding of the West Nile Virus and how it affects people so that necessary measures can be taken to prevent its spread.The effects of West Nile Virus on the body via various organ systemsThe WNV has various impacts on the body via various organ systems in the human body. For instance it has been noted that the WNV can lead to various complications. This is particularly when the virus appears in its severe form. Essentially the WNV can lead to brain damage. In addition it can lead to permanent muscle weakness (Dugdale & Vyas 2012; Diamond 2009).The effects of West Nile Virus on the individuals lifestyleThe West Nile Virus has various effects on the lifestyle of individuals. In this regard individuals have to adopt new lifestyles aimed at keeping mosquitoes at bay. For instance staying indoors during dusk and dawn. These are the times when mosquitoes are very active (Diamond 2009; Margulies 2004). Individuals may also eat garlic to ward off mosquitoes. There is also an argument that scented toiletries should be avoided to keep the mosquitoes off. The burning of a candle is another lifestyle change that is believed to keep off the mosquitoes. Furthermore individuals can turn to wearing things that cover their body parts to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. It can be noted that the lifestyle changes are aimed at keeping the mosquitoes at bay (Lee 2003; Margulies 2004).The impact of West Nile Virus on societyThe impact of the WNV on society is felt especially when the virus occurs in its severe form. In this case the virus can lead to the death of society members. The WNV can also lead to changes in the lifestyle of society members to avoid the mosquito bites (Sfakianos Hecht and Babcock 2009). In some instances the community may decide to relocate to other areas that are not infested with the mosquitoes (WHO 2013; Margulies 2004).Treatment and interventions currently used to control the West Nile VirusThere is no vaccine for the West Nile Virus (Sfakianos Hecht and Babcock 2009). However individuals who are affected should be hospitalized to reduce the adverse implication in severe cases. Those infected can be given assistance in breathing and intravenous fluids as well as the necessary care to manage the virus (Dugdale & Vyas 2012).ConclusionAs has been noted there is no vaccine for the West Nile Virus infection. Thus further research should be done to ensure that the vaccine is found. In the meantime efforts should be made to prevent the spread of this virus. People living in the affected areas should adopt the necessary lifestyles to curb the virus. In extreme cases people should be relocated to safe places.Thesis statement: There is a need to enhance the understanding of the West Nile Virus and how it affects people so that necessary measures can be taken to prevent its spread.
Annotated bibliography
WHO (2011). West Nile virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en/
This article argues that the West Nile Virus (WNV) causes neurological diseases. The diseases affect human beings and have been found to be prevalent in Europe Africa the US and Asia. Even though vaccines have been established to prevent the disease in horses none has been successful in human beings. However vaccines have been developed for horses. The disease was first diagnosed in Uganda in 1937. The disease has since spread to other countries. It is argued that birds and mosquitoes have contributed to this spread of the disease. The virus takes a short period to circulate in the blood system after a mosquito bite. The virus then enters the salivary glands of the mosquito. The virus is then injected into the human body when the mosquito bites. Contact with infected animals also spread the disease. However casual contact with human beings has not been reported to result in any infection. This information should be applied at the individual and community levels so that people can avoid mosquito bites through the use of treated nets. The spread of the disease can also be avoided by ensuring that one does not get in contact with the body fluids of an infected person.WHO (2013). West Nile Virus Infection (WNV) in Europe. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/don/2011_08_16/en/
In 2011 the WNV was detected in Europe. Health care workers are now aware of the prevalence of the disease in the region. The change in climate has also been favorable to the breeding of mosquitoes in Europe. The WHO has encouraged the countries in the region to institute the necessary measures to prevent the disease from spreading. Clinical management of the virus is important in controlling the spread of the disease because there is no vaccine for the disease. This article is significant because it demonstrates the spread of WNV in European countries.
Murray K. O. Ruktanonchai D. Hesalroad D. Fonken E. & Nolan M. S. (2013). West Nile Virus Texas USA 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19 (11) 1836-1838. Doi:10.3201/eid1911.130768.
The outbreak of the WNV which was experienced in 2012 was the worst experience in the US. There were about 1868 cases of infection experienced. People aged above 65 years were most affected. Most of these individuals were men. Not a single case was reported in 53% of the counties. The country incurred a cost of $47.6 million in combating the disease. This article is significant because it shows that people in the US have a high risk of infection.
Dugdale D. C. & Vyas J. M. (2012). West Nile virus. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004457/
This article describes the history of WNV the causes symptoms and prevention. The virus was identified in Uganda in 1937 and was later discovered in the US in 1999. The virus was first identified in New York but has spread to other places in the US. Birds flying from different places are said to cause the spread of the disease. Mosquitoes are known to be carriers of the WNV pathogen after they bite the affected birds. The mosquito then transfers the virus to human beings. It is not easy to notice if an individual has been infected by WNV until the virus has spread throughout the body. There are serious cases of the disease which may result in confusion coma and stiff necks as well as death. Since the disease is not caused by bacteria antibiotics cannot help to cure it. The disease can be prevented by using treated mosquito nets draining water pools wearing loin cloths and other practices which inhibit the breeding of mosquitos.