Question 1

Explain using appropriate examples, how the environmental classification of excreta­related diseases

may help engineers to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals for improved water supply and


Question 2

Critically evaluate the ways in which the human body is able to protect against infection by

pathogenic organisms using ‘specific’ and ‘non­specific’ defences. Provide examples to support your


Question 3

Critically compare alternative scenarios for the impact of climate change on patterns of water­related

infectious disease in both developed and less­developed countries.